Kanban Guide in English in 中文(简体)

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⽬录

Kanban 指南的⽬的

本指南旨在借由为 Kanban 设置最低限度的规则集,成为社区的统⼀参考。因为本 指南建立在 Kanban 的基本原理之上,所以其展现的策略可以适应全⽅位的价值交 付和组织挑战。 本⽂中对 “Kanban” ⼀词的任何使⽤都特指 “本指南中的全⾯性概念”。

Purpose of the Kanban Guide

December 2020 

By reducing Kanban to its essential components, the hope is that this guide will be a unifying reference for the community. By building upon Kanban fundamentals, the strategy presented here can accommodate the full spectrum of value delivery and organizational challenges.

Any use of the word Kanban in this document specifically means the holistic set of concepts in this guide.

Kanban 的定义

Kanban 是⼀种优化价值流动 (the flow of value) 的策略,其过程使⽤可视化与拉 式系统。定义价值可能有多种⽅法,举例来说:包括考虑来⾃于客户、使⽤者、组 织及环境的各种需要。

Kanban 包括以下三个协同⼯作的实践:

  • 定义与可视化⼯作流
  • 主动管理⼯作流中的⼯作项 (item)
  • 改进⼯作流

在执⾏时,这些 Kanban 实践被统称为 Kanban 系统 (Kanban system)。在 Kanban 系统中参与价值交付的⼈员称为 Kanban 系统成员 (Kanban system members)。

Definition of Kanban

Kanban is a strategy for optimizing the flow of value through a process that uses a visual, pull-based system. There may be various ways to define value, including consideration of the needs of the customer, the end-user, the organization, and the environment, for example.

Kanban comprises the following three practices working in tandem:

  • Defining and visualizing a workflow
  • Actively managing items in a workflow
  • Improving a workflow

In their implementation, these Kanban practices are collectively called a Kanban system. Those who participate in the value delivery of a Kanban system are called Kanban system members.

为何使⽤ Kanban?

Kanban 定义的核⼼是 “流” (flow) 的概念。 流是指潜在价值在系统中的流动。 由 于⼤多数⼯作流 (workflow) 都是为了优化价值⽽存在的, Kanban 的策略就是通 过优化流来优化价值。 优化并不⼀定意味着最⼤化。 更确切地说,价值优化意味 着努⼒在如何完成⼯作的效能、效率和可预测性之间找到妥当的平衡:

  • ⼀个具有效能的⼯作流是能够在客户需要的时候交付他们想要的东⻄。
  • ⼀个具有效率的⼯作流是尽可能地以最优化的⽅式分配可⽤且具经济效益的 资源以交付价值。
  • ⼀个更具可预测性的⼯作流是能够在可接受的不确定性范围内准确地预测价 值交付。

为了追寻这些⽬的,⽽须持续改进的努⼒事项中,Kanban 的策略是让成员尽 早地提出适当的问题。 只有在这三个要素之间找到⼀个可持续的平衡时,才能 达成价值优化。

因为 Kanban 能使⽤在各种不同的⼯作流上,所以 Kanban 的应⽤不限于任何 单⼀产业或情境 (context)。 专业知识⼯作者,例如财务⾦融、市场营销、医 疗保健和软件开发(仅举数例),都从 Kanban 的实践中获益。

Why use Kanban?

Central to the definition of Kanban is the concept of flow. Flow is the movement of potential value through a system. As most workflows exist to optimize value, the strategy of Kanban is to optimize value by optimizing flow. Optimization does not necessarily imply maximization. Rather, value optimization means striving to find the right balance of effectiveness, efficiency, and predictability in how work gets done:

  • An effective workflow is one that delivers what customers want when they want it.
  • An efficient workflow allocates available economic resources as optimally as possible to deliver value.
  • A predictable workflow means being able to accurately forecast value delivery within an acceptable degree of uncertainty.

The strategy of Kanban is to get members to ask the right questions sooner as part of a continuous improvement effort in pursuit of these goals. Only by finding a sustainable balance among these three elements can value optimization be achieved.

Because Kanban can work with virtually any workflow, its application is not limited to any one industry or context. Professional knowledge workers, such as those in finance, marketing, healthcare, and software (to name a few), have benefited from Kanban practices.

Kanban 理论

Kanban 得于著名的流动理论,包括(但不限于):系统思考、精益原则、排队论 (批次⼤⼩与队列规模)、可变性以及质量控制。随着时间的推移,基于这些理论 持续地改进 Kanban 系统是组织试图优化价值交付的⼀个途径。

⽤以建立 Kanban 的理论也被⽤于现有许多的以价值为导向的⽅法论和框架。 因 为具有这些相似处, Kanban 能够⽽且也应该⽤于强化这些交付技术。

Kanban Theory

Kanban draws on established flow theory, including but not limited to:

  • systems thinking,
  • lean principles,
  • queuing theory (batch size and queue size),
  • variability, and quality control.

Continually improving a Kanban system over time based on these theories is one way that organizations can attempt to optimize the delivery of value.

The theory upon which Kanban is based is also shared by many existing value-oriented methodologies and frameworks. Because of these similarities, Kanban can and should be used to augment those delivery techniques.

Kanban 实践

定义与可视化⼯作流

优化流须先定义流在特定情境中流的含义。在其情境中,Kanban 系统成员对于流 的明确且共同的认知,就称为 “⼯作流的定义” (Definition of Workflow,DoW)。 DoW 是 Kanban 的基础概念。本指南其他要素主要取决于在⼯作流是如何被定义 的。

最低限度——成员必须要⽤下列全部的要素建立他们的 DoW:

  • 在⼯作流中移动的各个价值单位的定义。这些价值单位被称为 “⼯作项”(或 是 “项”)(work items (or items) )。
  • 在⼯作流中 “开始” 与 “完成” ⼯作项的定义。根据⼯作项的不同,您的⼯作 流可能有多个起点或终点。
  • ⼯作项⾃开始到结束时流动所经过的⼀个或多个已定义状态。介于开始节点 与结束节点间的任何⼀个⼯作项就称为 “进⾏中⼯作” (work in progress, WIP)。 
  • 如何从开始到结束间控制 WIP 的定义。 
  • 有关⼯作项如何在每个状态中从开始到完成的明确的政策。
  • ⼀份⽤来预估⼀个⼯作项从开始到完成所应花费的时间的 “服务⽔平期望” (service level expectation,SLE)。

根据团队所遇状况不同,Kanban 系统成员经常须在 DoW 加入额外的要素, 像是各种价值、原则及⼯作协议。这些选项各不相同,在本指南范围之外还有 能帮助决定要导入何种要素的资源。

DoW 可视化地展现就是 Kanban ⾯板 (Kanban board)。对于那些有助于最佳 化⼯作运作与促进持续流程改进上知识处理⽽⾔,⾄少让 DoW 的最基本要素 ,在 Kanban ⾯板上保持透明,是极其重要的。

对于可视化看起来应该是何模样,并⽆规范特定指导⽅针,只要能涵盖对于价 值如何交付的共同认知。须考量 DoW 的各个⾯向,以及其它可能影响流程如 何运⾏的特定情境的相关因素。成员如何将⼯作流透明化,仅受限于 Kanban 系统成员⾃⼰的想像⼒。

Kanban Practices
Defining and Visualizing the Workflow

Optimizing flow requires defining what flow means in a given context. The explicit shared understanding of flow among Kanban system members within their context is called a Definition of Workflow (DoW). DoW is a fundamental concept of Kanban. All other elements of this guide depend heavily on how workflow is defined.

At minimum, members must create their DoW using all of the following elements:

  • A definition of the individual units of value that are moving through the workflow. These units of value are referred to as work items (or items).
  • A definition for when work items are started and finished within the workflow. Your workflow may have more than one started or finished points depending on the work item.
  • One or more defined states that the work items flow through from started to finished. Any work items between a started point and a finished point are considered work in progress (WIP).
  • A definition of how WIP will be controlled from started to finished.
  • Explicit policies about how work items can flow through each state from started to finished.
  • service level expectation (SLE), which is a forecast of how long it should take a work item to flow from started to finished.

Kanban system members often require additional DoW elements such as values, principles, and working agreements depending on the team’s circumstances. The options vary, and there are resources beyond this guide that can help with deciding which ones to incorporate.

The visualization of the DoW is called a Kanban board. Making at least the minimum elements of DoW transparent on the Kanban board is essential to processing knowledge that informs optimal workflow operation and facilitates continuous process improvement.

There are no specific guidelines for how a visualization should look as long as it encompasses the shared understanding of how value gets delivered. Consideration should be given to all aspects of the DoW (e.g., work items, policies) along with any other context-specific factors that may affect how the process operates. Kanban system members are limited only by their imagination regarding how they make flow transparent.

主动管理⼯作流中的⼯作项

⼯作流中各种⼯作项的主动管理可以采⽤数种形式,包括(但不限于):

  • 控制 WIP。
  • 避免⼯作项在⼯作流的任何⼀个阶段堆叠起来。
  • 使⽤ SLE 为参照指标,确保⼯作项不会在⽆必要的情况下陈放过久。
  • 解除遇到阻碍的⼯作的障碍 。

经常性地审查对于⼯作项的主动管理,是 Kanban 系统成员常⽤的⼀种实践。虽然 有些⼈会选择采⽤每⽇举⾏的会议,但是并不需要强制规定审查或是定期性会议, 只要的确有发⽣主动管理的事实即可。

Actively Managing Items in a Workflow

Active management of items in a workflow can take several forms, including but not limited to the following:

  • Controlling WIP.
  • Avoiding work items piling up in any part of the workflow.
  • Ensuring work items do not age unnecessarily, using the SLE as a reference.
  • Unblocking blocked work.

A common practice is for Kanban system members to review the active management of items regularly. Although some may choose a daily meeting, there is no requirement to formalize the review or meet at a regular cadence so long as active management takes place.

控制 WIP

Kanban 系统成员须明确地控制在⼯作流中从开始到结束间的⼯作项数量。这种控 制称为 “WIP 数量限制”(WIP limits),通常是以数字或是以在 Kanban ⾯板上的 空位/令牌来展现。⼀个 WIP 数量限制可以包括(但不限于)在单⼀栏位中、数个 分组的栏位/泳道/区块内、或是整个⾯板上的⼯作项。

控制 WIP 会带来⼀个附加作⽤,那就是拉式系统的建立。称为拉式系统的缘由是 因为 Kanban 系统成员只会等出现明确信号告知有容纳能⼒时,才会开始拿起 (“拉”或“选取”) ⼀个⼯作项开始⼯作。当 WIP 低于 DoW 上设定的限制时,就是 选取新⼯作项的信号。成员应该避免在⼯作流上特定区块中拉/挑选⾼于 WIP Limit 所限制的⼯作项数量。 在极少数情况下,系统成员可能会同意拉入额外超过 WIP 数量限制的⼯作项,但这种情况不应该成为常规操作。

控制 WIP 不仅能够有助于⼯作流,也能够改进 Kanban 系统成员共同的专注、承 诺及协作。任何在控制 WIP 时可接受的例外情况都应该作为 DoW 的⼀部分予以 明确说明。

Controlling Work In Progress

Kanban system members must explicitly control the number of work items in a workflow from start to finish. That control is usually represented as numbers or slots/tokens on a Kanban board that are called WIP limits. A WIP limit can include (but is not limited to) work items in a single column, several grouped columns/lanes/areas, or a whole board.

A side effect of controlling WIP is that it creates a pull system. It is called a pull system because Kanban system members start work on an item ( pulls or selects) only when there is a clear signal that there is capacity to do so. When WIP drops below the limit in the DoW, that is a signal to select new work. Members should refrain from pulling/selecting more than the number of work items into a given part of the workflow as defined by the WIP Limit. In rare cases, system members may agree to pull additional work items beyond the WIP Limit, but it should not be routine.

Controlling WIP not only helps workflow but often also improves the Kanban system members’ collective focus, commitment, and collaboration. Any acceptable exceptions to controlling WIP should be made explicit as part of the DoW.

服务⽔平期望

SLE 是⼀个对单个⼯作项从开始到完成——应该需要花费多⻓时间的预测。 SLE 本⾝有两部分:流逝的时间⻓度和与该时间⻓度相关的概率(例如,“85% 的⼯作 项将在 8 天或更短的时间内完成”)。 SLE 应该基于过往历史的周期时间 (cycle time),并且⼀旦计算出来,就应该在 Kanban ⾯板 (kanban board) 上进⾏可视化 展现。 如果过往历史的周期时间数据不存在,那么⽤最佳的猜测值即可,直到有 ⾜够的历史数据⽤于适宜的 SLE 计算。

Service Level Expectation

The SLE is a forecast of how long it should take a single work item to flow from started to finished. The SLE itself has two parts: a period of elapsed time and a probability associated with that period (e.g., “85% of work items will be finished in eight days or less”). The SLE should be based on historical cycle time, and once calculated, should be visualized on the Kanban board. If historical cycle time data does not exist, a best guess will do until there is enough historical data for a proper SLE calculation.

改进⼯作流

将 DoW 清晰明确化后,Kanban 系统成员的责任就是要持续地改进其⼯作流,在 效能、效率及可预测性间达到更好的平衡。他们⽤从可视化与 Kanban 各种其它度 量所得来的信息,来指引他们如何调整 DoW 以取得最⼤利益。

常⻅的做法是不时地审查 DoW 并讨论与实施所需要的变更。 然⽽,并不需等到例 ⾏的正式会议时才实施这些变更。 Kanban 系统成员可以⽽且应该根据实际情境的 变化⽽做即时更动。 也没有任何规范要求⼯作流的改进必须是⼩范围且增量的。 如果可视化和 Kanban 度量显⽰需要进⾏重⼤的改变,那就是成员应该实施的。

Improving the Workflow

Having made the DoW explicit, the Kanban system members’ responsibility is to continuously improve their workflow to achieve a better balance of effectiveness, efficiency, and predictability. The information they gain from visualization and other Kanban measures guide what tweaks to the DoW may be most beneficial.

It is common practice to review the DoW from time to time to discuss and implement any changes needed. There is no requirement, however, to wait for a formal meeting at a regular cadence to make these changes. Kanban system members can and should make just-in-time alterations as the context dictates. There is also nothing that prescribes improvements to workflow to be small and incremental. If visualization and the Kanban measures indicate that a big change is needed, that is what the members should implement.

Kanban 度量

Kanban 的应⽤,需要收集和分析关于流的最低度量(或度量指标)组合。这些度 量能反映当前 Kanban 系统的健康情况与性能,并有助于关于如何交付价值的决 策。

强制规定须跟踪的四项流动度量为:

  • WIP:已开始但未完成的⼯作项的数量。
  • 产能 (Throughput):每单位时间内完成的⼯作项的数量。 请注意,产能的 度量是对⼯作项的精确计数。
  • ⼯作项存续时⻓ (Work Item Age):⼀⼯作项从开始到当前时刻之间所经过 的时间⻓度。
  • 周期时间 (Cycle time):⼀⼯作项从开始到完成之间所经过的时间⻓度。

对于这四个强制规定的流动度量,“开始” 和 “完成” 的术语是指 Kanban 系统成员 如何在 DoW 中定义这些术语。

如果成员按照本指南中的说明使⽤这些度量指标,成员可以使⽤他们选择的任何其 他名称来引⽤任⼀度量。

就其本⾝⽽⾔,这些度量指标是没有任何意义的,除非它们可以为三种 Kanban 实 践中的⼀种或多种实践提供信息。 因此,建议使⽤图表可视化这些度量指标。 使 ⽤哪种图表并不重要,只要它们能够对 Kanban 系统的当前健康状况和性能达成共 识即可。

在本指南中列出的流动度量,只代表了Kanban 系统运作的最基本必要条件。 Kanban 系统成员能够并且经常性地采⽤其他与特定情境有关的度量,以帮助做出 有数据依据的决策。

Kanban Measures

The application of Kanban requires the collection and analysis of a minimum set of flow measures (or metrics). They are a reflection of the Kanban system’s current health and performance and will help inform decisions about how value gets delivered.

The four mandatory flow measures to track are:

  • WIP: The number of work items started but not finished.
  • Throughput: The number of work items finished per unit of time. Note the measurement of throughput is the exact count of work items.
  • Work Item Age: The amount of elapsed time between when a work item started and the current time.
  • Cycle Time: The amount of elapsed time between when a work item started and when a work item finished.

For these mandatory four flow measures, started and finished refer to how the Kanban system members have defined those terms in the DoW.

Provided that the members use these metrics as described in this guide, members can refer to any of these measures using any other names as they choose.

In and of themselves, these metrics are meaningless unless they can inform one or more of the three Kanban practices. Therefore, visualizing these metrics using charts is recommended. It does not matter what kind of charts are used as long as they enable a shared understanding of the Kanban system’s current health and performance.

The flow measures listed in this guide represent only the minimum required for the operation of a Kanban system. Kanban system members may and often should use additional context-specific measures that assist data-informed decisions.

结束语

Kanban 的各种实践与度量是不能更改的。 虽然能够只实⾏部分的 Kanban,但是 其结果就不是 Kanban 了。 您能够⽽且很有可能应该向 Kanban 系统中加入其它 各种原则、⽅法论和技术,但是必须保留其最基本的实践、度量和优化价值的精 神。

Endnote

Kanban’s practices and measures are immutable. Although implementing only parts of Kanban is possible, the result is not Kanban. One can and likely should add other principles, methodologies, and techniques to the Kanban system, but the minimum set of practices, measures, and the spirit of optimizing value must be preserved.

Kanban 历史

Kanban 的现状可追溯到丰⽥⽣产系统(及其前⾝)以及像 Taiichi Ohno 和 W. Edwards Deming 等⼈的⼯作成果。 现在通常称为 Kanban 的知识⼯作的集体实 践集主要起源于 2006 年 Corbis 的⼀个团队。这些实践快速扩张⾄遍及⼀个持续 增强与演变该⽅法(approach)的⼤型且多样化的国际社区。

History of Kanban

The present state of Kanban can trace its roots to the Toyota Production System (and its antecedents) and the work of people like Taiichi Ohno and W. Edwards Deming. The collective set of practices for knowledge work that is now commonly referred to as Kanban mostly originated on a team at Corbis in 2006. Those practices quickly spread to encompass a large and diverse international community that has continued to enhance and evolve the approach.

致谢

除了在这些年来帮助发展 Kanban 的⼈之外,我们还要特别感谢下列对本指南做出 贡献的⼈⼠:

  • 提供初始基本概念的 Yuval Yeret 和 Steve Porter。
  • 启发我们拓展价值定义的灵感的 Emily Coleman。
  • 帮助开发本指南所依据的许多辅助素材的 Ryan Ripley 和 Todd Miller。
  • 极具洞察⼒且担任本指南早期初稿审查的⼈员 Julia Wester、Colleen Johnson、 Jose Casal 和 Jean-Paul Bayley。
  • 对本指南最终公开版本的内容做出慎重考量的 Dave West 和 Eric Naiburg 。
  • 执⾏编辑⼯作的 Deborah Zanke。
Acknowledgments

In addition to all who helped to develop Kanban over the years, we would like to thank the following individuals specifically for their contributions to this guide:

  • Yuval Yeret and Steve Porter for their initial contribution of foundational concepts.
  • Emily Coleman for the inspiration to broaden the definition of value.
  • Ryan Ripley and Todd Miller for helping to develop much of the supporting materials upon which this guide is based.
  • Julia Wester, Colleen Johnson, Jose Casal, and Jean-Paul Bayley for being insightful reviewers of the early drafts.
  • Dave West and Eric Naiburg for their careful consideration of what should be in the final published version.
  • Deborah Zanke for editing.

License

本作品由 Orderly Disruption Limited 和 Daniel S. Vacanti, Inc. 根据 Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International License 授权。

License

This work is licensed by Orderly Disruption Limited and Daniel S. Vacanti, Inc. under a Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International License.

关于翻译

译⽂⻛格

  • 初次介绍专有名词与词汇时,使⽤圆括号()补充说明。 圆括号有全⾓()和半⾓ ( ) 两种形式。 括号内的内容为英⽂时,使⽤半形括号,前后与中⽂字之间留半形空格。 括号内包含纯中⽂时,使⽤全形括号。
  • 当原⽂使⽤斜体或粗体来强调词语,使⽤引号 “ ” 或破折号 ——。

致谢中⽂译者

本中⽂指南由上述致谢的开发者所提供的英⽂ 2020 原版翻译⽽来。

中⽂指南翻译团队成员包括:

术语表

Glossary

原⽂ 中⽂翻译 / 备注
batch size 批次⼤⼩
Definition of Workflow (DoW) ⼯作流的定义
flow 流;流动 备注:原⽂中的 “flow” 依据情况有 Kanban 实践 中的“流”与“流动”之意。
flow theory 流动理论
lean principles 精益原则
pull-based system 拉式系统
queue size 队列规模
queuing theory 排队论
service level expectation (SLE) 服务⽔平期望
throughput 产能 备注:其他⽂献翻译为“处理量”、“吞吐量”
WIP limits 进⾏中⼯作数量限制;WIP 数量限制
work in progress (WIP) 进⾏中⼯作 备注:其他⽂献翻译为“未完成⼯作”、“在制品”
work item (or item) ⼯作项; 项
Work Item Age ⼯作项存续时⻓

致谢中⽂译者

Tony Lee
Tony Lee

Agile Coach, Trainer at HowAgile, Scrum.org Trainer

Jeff Liu
Jeff Liu

Founder @ GrowSafe

Zhou Jian Cheng
Zhou Jian Cheng
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